Advertisement

Clonotypic heterogeneity in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) revealed by comprehensive whole-exome sequencing

Aishwarya Iyer, Dylan Hennessey, Sandra O’Keefe, Jordan Patterson, Weiwei Wang, Thomas Salopek, Gane Ka-Shu Wong and Robert Gniadecki

Data supplements

Article Figures & Data

Figures

  • Figure 1.

    Schematic representation of sample collection, processing, and TCR sequencing. Four-millimeter punch biopsies were collected from early lesions (plaques; red circles) or tumors (green squares) in 27 patients with MF. Biopsies were cryosectioned and laser microdissected to capture tumor cells that were pooled together. Original magnification ×10; hematoxylin and eosin staining. DNA and RNA were isolated simultaneously from the microdissected material and processed for WES and WTS. WTS data are available only for samples MF4_2T, MF4_3P, MF5_1T, MF5_2P, MF7_1T, MF7_2P, MF11T, MF11_1P, MF19_1T, and MF19_2P and a pool of normal CD4+ lymphocytes (data not shown). The gene sequence is indicated in green, the adapter sequence is indicated in red, and the index sequence is indicated in blue.

  • Figure 2.

    Efficiency of WES probe capture and WTS protocols in the detection of CDR3 clonotypes in MF biopsies. All of the samples were sequenced using whole-exome probe capture (A) and WTS (B), and the number of clonotypes for TCRα, TCRβ, and TCRγ was determined for each sample, as indicated. The lines connect the results for the same sample. (C-E) The effect of TCR-specific probes. The capture was performed in 4 samples with whole-exome probes as in panel A (Exome) or with whole-exome probes combined with specific TCR capture probes (Exome+TCR) and sequenced, and the number of unique clonotypes for TCRα (C), TCRβ (D), and TCRγ (E) was determined, as in panel A. The addition of probes slightly increased the number of TCRγ clonotypes (P = .024, paired Student t test) but not the number of TCRα or TCRβ clonotypes. (F-H) The effect of sequencing depth on clonotype detection for TCRα (F), TCRβ (G), and TCRγ (H). Two samples of whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sequenced with WES at a maximum of 400 million reads, as in panel A. The samples do not reach saturation up to 348 million reads (∼800× sequencing depth).

  • Figure 3.

    Relative frequency of T-cell clonotypes. TCRα (A), TCRβ (B), and TCRγ (C) repertoire sequences identified from WES of MF samples. Sample ID relates to patient number, as in Figure 1, with the suffix P (plaque) or T (tumor). TCRα (D) and TCRβ (E) repertoires identified by WTS of MF samples. Each bar represents an individual CDR3 amino acid clonotype, with red and green indicating the first-ranked and tenth-ranked clonotype, respectively, in decreasing order of relative frequency. Gray bars represent the rest of the identified clonotypes in the samples. NormalLym, pooled CD4+ normal lymphocytes from 4 healthy donors.

  • Figure 4.

    Clonotypic diversity of MF. Contribution of the dominant clonotypes of TCRα, TCRβ, and TCRγ relative to the tumor DNA enrichment of the sample. Note that for samples MF4_2T, MF4_3P, MF5_1T, MF5_2P, MF7_1T, MF7_2P, MF8P, MF9P, MF11T, and MF11_1P, the proportion of the dominant TCRγ clonotype is approximately equal to the proportion of tumor DNA in the samples, indicating that all tumor cells share the same TCRγ clonotype. However, in the same samples, the relative frequency of the dominant TCRα and TCRβ clonotypes is only 15% (range, 6.52-30.89), indicating that other clonotypes are found in tumor-derived DNA.

  • Figure 5.

    Shared T-cell clonotypes. The 10 most frequent CDR3 sequences identified using WES were tested for overlap. The red boxes denote the TCRα (A), TCRβ (B), and TCRγ (C) clonotypes shared in tumor and plaque lesion pairs collected from each individual patient.