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Modulation of TAP-dependent antigen compartmentalization during human monocyte-to-DC differentiation

Marius Döring, Hanna Blees, Nicole Koller, Sabine Tischer-Zimmermann, Mathias Müsken, Frederik Henrich, Jennifer Becker, Elena Grabski, Junxi Wang, Hans Janssen, Werner Zuschratter, Jacques Neefjes, Frank Klawonn, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Robert Tampé and Ulrich Kalinke

Data supplements

Article Figures & Data

Figures

  • Figure 1.

    Monocytes and imDCs pulsed with recombinant IE1 protein and differentiated and/or matured to mDCs similarly restimulate HCMV-specific T-lymphocyte expansion, while only antigen-loaded mDCs induce cytokine expression in preexpanded T lymphocytes. (A) Surface marker expression during differentiation of monocytes (mono; day 0) to imDCs (day 5) and maturation to mDCs (day 8); 1 of 4 similar experiments is shown. (B) Restimulation of HLA-A*03+ HCMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes during incubation for 12 days with either IE1 pulsed monocytes or imDCs that were differentiated to mDCs (mono + IE1 and imDC + IE1, respectively) (means ± 95% confidence interval [CI], n = 4). **P ≤ .03, 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. (C) IL-2 and TNF-α expression of preexpanded HCMV+ T lymphocytes derived from HLA-A02:01+ donors cocultured with pp65-pulsed autologous monocytes or mDCs (means ± 95% CI, n = 3). Preexpanded T cells were additionally incubated with anti-CD28 antibody plus a crosslinking antibody (costim) to mimic costimulation. **P ≤ .005; *P ≤ .05; Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s correction for multiple comparison.

  • Figure 2.

    Monocytes show a shorter surface MHC I half-life than DCs. (A) MHC I surface turnover of monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs examined at the indicated time points over 4 hours (red histograms). (B) Newly expressed MHC I on monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs examined at the indicated time points over 4 hours (light red histograms). The 4°C control was incubated for 4 hours and is shown in blue histograms. Graphs in panels A and B indicate the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of MHC I expression normalized to MFI values of time point 0 (means ± 95% CI, n = 6 for monocytes, imDC, and mDCs; 1 out of 4 independent experiments). **P ≤ .005; *P ≤ .05; Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s correction for multiple comparison.

  • Figure 3.

    TAP-dependent peptide compartmentalization wanes during moDC differentiation (A) TAP-dependent peptide compartmentalization of monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs. MFI values of the histograms are indicated (left). Compartmentalization was performed in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; red line) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP; blue filled) to control for unspecific accumulation. Percent transport of monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs normalized to MFI values of monocyte adenosine triphosphate samples (means ± 95% CI, n = 10). ***P ≤ .0001; Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s correction for multiple comparisons. (B) TAP-dependent peptide compartmentalization during differentiation of monocytes to mDCs (1 of 4 similar experiments is shown [left]). Percent TAP-dependent peptide compartmentalization (means ± 95% CI, n = 8 [right]). ***P ≤ .0001; **P ≤ .001; Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s correction for multiple comparison. (C) ICP47AT565-mediated inhibition of TAP-dependent peptide compartmentalization (means ± 95% CI, n = 6) in mDC. For ICP47AT565, a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 34 nM was calculated with a 95% CI from 24 to 46 nM. (D) Bright field images of monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs. Blue 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stain indicates the nucleus, whereas the white dashed line indicates the cell shape. Scale bars, 5 µm. (E) Intracellular TAP1 staining in monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs (means ± 95% CI, n = 5). (F) TAP1 immunoblotting of monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs. IT, isotype staining; ns, not significant.

  • Figure 4.

    TAP location changes from endosomes to the ER and lysosomes. (A) Immunofluorescent staining of the early endosomes (EEA1), lysosomes (LAMP1), the ER membrane marker calnexin (CNX), and TAP1 in monocytes, imDCs, and mDCs. Scale bars, 5 µm. (B) Statistical analysis of Pearson coefficients obtained in 4 independent experiments (white circles represent donors; the mean is shown as a black line). ***P ≤ .0001; **P ≤ .001; *P ≤ .05; Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s correction for multiple comparison. (C) Electron microscopy of monocytes. Scale bar, 500 nm. (D) Magnification of the area indicated in panel C. Scale bar, 150 nm. (E) Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (N-STORM) of mDCs stained for EEA1, LAMP1, CNX, and TAP1. Scale bars, 1 µm; CNX/TAP1 photo scale bar, 0.5 µm. One of 2 independent experiments is shown. (F) Statistical analysis of Pearson coefficients obtained in 2 independent experiments of OST and TAP1 costaining (white circles represent donors; the mean is shown as a black line). (G) Model of TAP relocalization during moDC differentiation. TAP is expressed in EEA1+ endosomes of monocytes and relocalizes to the ER (CNX+) and LAMP1+ lysosomes in moDCs. The size of TAP1/2 heterodimer in the cartoon is according to its protein expression level and inversely correlates with its activity. The nucleus is shown in blue and the Golgi apparatus as brown tubular structures. E, endosome, TAP1 (15-nm gold particles); ER, ER membrane stacks; L, lysosome; MC, mitochondria; NC, nucleus.